Sunday, February 23, 2020

Texas and The Death Penalty Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Texas and The Death Penalty - Research Paper Example Being represented by the right lawyer determines the chances of providing adequate evidence to ascertain one's innocence or guiltiness. Opponents of death penalties argue that some people may end up being killed while they are innocent if the trial is not fair or if the accused person’s counsel lacks expertise. This has raised the issue of the appropriateness of death execution for punishing offenders since the trial process may result in conviction and murder of innocent individuals (â€Å"American Civil Liberties Union† Web). Another issue surrounding the death penalty is diversity inconsistencies such as racial and gender. There have been arguments that the number of African Americans sentenced to death and executed is higher as compared to other races. Additionally, there are perceptions that cases where the victim is black rarely lead to death row while those involving white victims often lead to death rows. Such statistics have led to questions regarding the evenhandedness of the justice system when dealing with capital offenses. On the issue of diversity, there is a problem regarding the role of gender in determining the penalty. In most cases, capital offenses involving men are likely to lead to the death penalty as compared to those involving women. At times, this has created the notion that the justice system favors women suspects (â€Å"American Civil Liberties Union† Web). Another issue surrounding the death penalty in Texas is whether the punishment serves its purpose. Legal punishment is designed to correct the perpetrator of the crime and or deter others from committing such crimes.  

Thursday, February 6, 2020

Consumer Law in United Kingdom Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 words

Consumer Law in United Kingdom - Essay Example The paper tells that very many companies today use awkward tactics to make sales. These range from closing down sales that they let to run for as long as possible, to the special offers that do not really exist. Nonetheless, some of the offers they usually make are quite genuine. However, the way the sales are made to the customers usually leaves the customers perplexed and wondering what the salespersons are aiming. A sales man or woman may stay for very long, up to hours waiting for a customer or client to make a subscription and then go ahead to tell the customer that his or her income depends on the client paying up. No sound for alarm, though, because ever since 26th may 2008, laws have been put in place with the aim of militating against such practices. Consumer protection from unfair trading regulations 2008 (CPRs) have made it possible for the protection of consumers from exploitation, and unfair treatment through misleading omissions, misleading actions, or other aggressive practices that businesspersons engage in. Misleading actions according to the consumer protection regulations are such practices such as marketing or advertising goods that do not really exist in the first place. Businesspersons also offer also usually make advertisements of items that they do not really have enough of in their stock. This means they create excess demand for the little goods they have in their stock. This practice of advertising a commodity with no aim of meeting its demand is a misleading action on the part of the traders and sales persons. The consumer protection regulations also prohibit traders from lying about the goods they have, or marketing them to consumers as another product, in order to gain credibility. In any case, a trader has signed a code of practice, he or she should stand by it and obey it to the later, failing to do so; failing to follow the code of practice may result for charges on the grounds of breach of the Consumer Protection regulations (Wo odroffe 82). Misleading omissions on the other hand, applies to the act of traders being very economical with the truth about their products, or deliberately leaving out information that customers need in order to make decisions that are well informed. Under these consumer protection regulations, it is the responsibility of the traders to make sure information about the products they sell reaches the consumers and customers at the right time. Timeliness is important in business. This ensures that information gets to consumers when they really need it; and not very late, that they can no longer use the information (Sealy 54). The aggressive practices are the sales tactics that really influence the process of decision making of consumers and customers in general. ThiAQAs means that the traders who ‘force customers’ to make decisions through threatening behavior, and do not give consumers breathing space, will be, under the regulations of consumer protection, committing an offence. In practicing these consumer protection regulations on traders, it is not just enough to demonstrate the deed. The accuser has to show that the consumer’s decision was indeed, influenced by the practice the trader is guilty of doing. The new rules set out by the United Kingdom to govern consumer protection against traders who are rogue came into effect in 2008. For the first time in the history of the United Kingdom, traders will not be allowed to trade unfairly to their customers. This does not mean that they will be restricted from making their own profits as they would; they are only required to follow the guidelines stipulated by the consumer

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

The Development of Ballads Essay Example for Free

The Development of Ballads Essay Ballads have been in evidence since the seventh century and have been popular ever since. They travelled around the globe as people emigrated, picking up stories of historical significance on the way. Their main purpose is to entertain, being sung or recited, often accompanied by music. Their distinctive poetic form told appealing tales of heroism, hardship and adventure often in dramatic terms. They were also a means of spreading news, to a largely illiterate population in an easily understood narrative way. Ballads follow a distinctive recipe, elements of which can be seen in all ballads. They use quatrains, which are four line stanzas. An example of this can be seen in the ballad, The Rime of the Ancient Mariner: The fair breeze blew, the white foam flew, The furrow followd free We were the first that ever burst Into that silent sea In this verse you can see a regular A B C B rhyming scheme, which means that lines two and four rhyme with a bouncy rhythm. Ballads told simple stories to entertain audiences such as in The Twa Corbies where two ravens having a conversation. The ballads would build up to a climax where the main event of the story would happen. In the ballad Sir Patrick Spens we read lines like: Drinking the blood red wine And When the sky grew dark, the wind blew loud, And angry grew the sea This automatically suggests to the reader that there is a going to be a murder as it is setting the scene for one. It was vital that the balladeer maintained the interest of his audience by using dramatic yet simple imagery. He had to paint the scene in words to engage the imagination of the audience. The symbolic use of colour is used to create atmosphere. Red often symbolises blood or royalty, for example, the ballad Sir Patrick Spens reads: Drinking the blood red wine which creates tension and a thick atmosphere. White symbolises good so black obviously symbolises evil. In Johnie Armstrong it reads Goodly steeds were all milky white this tells us that all Johnie Armstrongs men rode white horses which helps to portray him and his men as the good guys. The audience would have recognised the inference of what the colours meant. Ballads told tales with simple themes, for example Johnie Armstrong tells a Robin Hood style story of an honest outlaw who is betrayed by a treacherous Scottish king. Other themes explored in ballads capture lives of adventure and hardship. Keeping things simple was important, as most of the listeners would have been peasants living in small communities often impoverished and with little way of escaping hard lives. Hearing tales of larger than life characters at least temporally diverted them from their own circumstances. Sometimes audience participation was encouraged for example in the Twa Corbies where the narrative breaks from third person to first person: The tane unto the tither did say, Whar sall we gang and dine the day? I imagine the scenario either where two or three balladeers working together took roles within a spoken or sung ballad or where one balladeer hopped between storyteller and actor. In either the audience may have been invited to supply lines making the ballads more of a lively improvised story. This would have been great fun moving the action from performer to the audience and back again. The characters depicted were bold but shallow leaving the audience with a two dimensional representation which told of what the characters did but not of how they felt. There was little attempt to flesh out any subtleties of characterisation. Action and events moved the story line not any depth in the characters. In the beginning of the border ballad Johnie Armstrong he is described as being a bold outlaw. We are told that he came from Westmerland, on the Scottish border. He came from poverty, had neither land or rent coming in and alot about what he possessed in terms of men, horses and weapon, but not much about him as a man. The ballad of Johnie Armstrong is a good example of a border ballad. A border ballad focused on the conflict between the Scottish and the English. The ballad is clearly written from an English viewpoint, describing Johnie as proud, brave and heroic. The words faire Westmerland are the first indication that this is written from an English perspective. The band own white horses (white symbolising good) and are described as being a goodly sight for to see. On the other hand, the Scottish king is portrayed as being deceitful and double crossing tricking Johnie and his men to their deaths. Another type of ballad is the broadside ballad. These were an early form of newspaper recording local events and news told in narrative form. What distinguished them was the fact that for the first time they were fixed in print and sold at fairs for a penny, becoming the earliest written ballads. Two examples of these are Mary Cummings and Charlotte Dymand, these poem were not really in the right period but in the right style. The ballad of Mary Cummings is the story of a crime of passion. It a sensational tale of love, abandonment, revenge and violent murder eventually finishing with the hanging of an unrepented jilted bride. It depicts a tragic heroine with the themes of love and death dramatically portrayed. The language is graphic: The mother slithered to the ground, The fathers eyes went white We are given the picture of the hopeful girl in her bridal gown on a spring morning that becomes the murderess cursing the groom and his parents. The line the pain in Marys Mind gives a clue that she is becoming deranged. The images are all of things fading: The sun that glittered down, the sun slid out of sight. The audience would have been able to grasp the cruel irony that the bridal gown is to become the shroud of death. Instead of a husband she is to meet the dark lover i. e. devil; she has renounced her religion. The whole ballad evokes a sense of the eagerness for marriage being replaced by an eagerness for death. As people travelled from place to place they took the basic ballad recipe with them as well as the ballads. Ballads can be found all over the word: Sir Patrick Spens is a traditional Scottish ballad; Young Hunting is an eighteenth centaury ballad, perhaps with earlier Danish parallels and Ballad of Sixty-Five is a traditional Jamaican ballad. This proves that ballads have travelled all over the globe, appealing to worldwide audiences for many centauries. The Ballad of Sixty-Five tells a story of historical significance to many Jamaicans; a group of slaves in Jamaica march to their governors house demanding there right and are eventually hanged to make a public spectacle. It had the opposite reaction making other slaves believe that they could stand up for themselves: Paul Boyle died but his spirit talked, Anywhere in Jamaica that freedom walks. The poem has examples of patois, which is native Jamaican dialect. You can wuk like a mule but de crop still bad It also has an A A B B rhyming scheme to it and a Calypso rhythum, which shows how the basic ballad recipe can be varied as it travelled. Ballads are an ancient form of communication; they have been around for centauries keeping almost the same recipe throughout. They told tales of historical importance as well as stories just to entertain. They have been popular ever since they begun and although they are not still in there original form we can see element derived from ballads in modern day song.

Monday, January 20, 2020

Zero Emissions Technology :: essays papers

Zero Emissions Technology Zero Emissions Technology: Current Technologies and Future Developments in Electrostatic Precipitators Abstract Zero Emissions Technology is a company located in New Durham, NH. They develop new technologies targeted at coal fired power plants. They have recently developed a new air emissions technology that will meet current and pending air pollution regulations. Their product, Electro-Catalytic Oxidation Technology, allow the combined removal of particulates in the air waste stream. The new technology can be retrofitted onto existing electrostatic precipitators (ESP), according to the industry, is not as expensive as other air pollution control technologies. The Electro-Catalytic Oxidation Technology also has many technological advantages to more conventional ESPs. Zero Emissions Technology (ZET) is a company who develops new technologies in air pollution control technologies to meet the demands of new regulations on air emissions. In the past, their focus has been on air pollution control technology for large stationary sources, such as coal fired power plants. In the future, their research will be to discover new technologies not only for air pollution, but also in water and solid waste. (ZET, 1999). Zero Emissions Technology has developed a new technology that focuses on the combined removal of particulates for coal fired power plants. Electro-Catalytic Oxidation Technology is a product by Zero Emissions Technology (ZET). This new technology that ZET is has developed will enable the combined removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), mercury (Hg), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from the flue gas of coal fired power plants. This new technology will collect at least 70% of NOx, 50% of SO2, 70% of mercury (Hg), and 90% of PM2.5 in a single unit that can be retrofitted into the last fields of existing electrostatic precipitators (ESP) (ZET, 1999). This will allow coal fired plants to meet new air emission requirements with minimal impact on their generating costs. It can be retrofitted into the last fields of existing ESP. Electo-Catalytic Oxidatin Technology uses a proprietary gas discharge technology to convert NOx and SO2 to acid mists, and to oxidize elemental mercury. It also uses advances in wet ESP technology to remove acid mists and other fine particles without saturating flue gas. The Electr o-Catalytic Oxidation system consists of three sections: gas converter, condensing wet ESP, and acid recovery (ZET, 1999). The Gas Converter is used for the electrical oxidation of NOx, SO2 and Hg. As the flue gas enters the Gas Converter, it is exposed to a high voltage discharge which creates ionized species to oxidize pollutants.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

The Conflicts Between Siblings

English 102 10/29/2012 The Conflicts between Siblings In the story â€Å"Sonny’s blues†, the Sonny’s brother is the narrator and main character; his name is never mentioned throughout the story. He and Sonny are the two brothers with a big difference of their ages. They don’t spend too much time with each other since they grow up. They have different world. The narrator is a high school algebra teacher and family man. Sunny is through his brother’s eyes, as a quiet, introspective person with a tendency to withdraw inside himself. Sonny is also described by the narrator as wild, but not crazy.He takes drugs which led him to jail. He wants to be a musician because of his passion for jazz. The narrator wishes his brother to have a regular and stable job as himself, but doesn’t work unsteadily as a musician. Sunny doesn’t finish school, so he is hard to find a job which is same as his brother’s thought. He doesn’t have too ma ny work choices like other black youths during the years. Sunny and his brother have different life styles. The narrator promises their mother to take care of Sunny, but he thinks he does not do it well. They have different philosophy and different understanding of career paths.After the narrator’s daughter dies, the narrator and Sunny talk to each other. The narrator finally understands of Sonny’s pursuit of music. In the story â€Å"Everyday use†, Dee is oldest daughter of â€Å"Mama† and sister to Maggie. She is a educated, worldly, and deeply determined girl; she gets everything what she wants. Maggie is the younger daughter who stays with Mama while Dee goes to school. She wants to stay with her mother because she is an unintelligent and unattractive girl. Dee wants to escape from the village, and she always dresses herself attractively.Dee is successfully to have better education and opportunity to see the world. Maggie gets stuck because of her shy character. Dee is an independent girl, and Maggie is a dependent girl. They have different understandings of the life. Dee feels embracing about Maggie and their mother by different attitudes to the world, physical appearance, and their education. The conflicts between two sisters are not solved in the story. In both of the stories, sibling rivalry, conflicts of their relation and burden responsibility of one to the other are the similarities, and solution to their conflicts is the difference.Sibling rivalry through out of both stories. In â€Å"Sonny’s Blues†, the narrator wishes his brother have consistent life same as his. He thinks he is older than Sonny, so he has more life experiences. He should take care of his brother because Sonny has dealing with drugs. â€Å"That last conversation between Baldwin's narrator and his mother suggests that he should be his brother's keeper, but the narrator has failed miserably at that duty, which is apparent in the telling op ening sentence of â€Å"Sonny's Blues†: â€Å"I read about it [Sonny's arrest] in the paper, in the subway, on my way to work†.If the narrator had to rely on a newspaper report to become aware of Sonny's trouble, he could not have been keeping his promise to his mother to care for his younger brother. Sonny did not even bother to call his older brother after the arrest. † (THE BIBLICAL FOUNDATION OF JAMES BALDWIN'S â€Å"SONNY'S BLUES† Page6 by James Tackach) The narrator doesn’t know sonny is not a kid anymore. Sonny chooses to be a jazz musician is not an impulsive decision since he has grown up. Sonny wants to escape from the Harlem, so he is not the young man who messes up his own life.In the â€Å"Everyday Use†, the sibling rivalry still exists. Even though, Maggie is a compliant girl, Dee still wants to beat her from everywhere. She is a strong-minded girl and leads Maggie around by the nose. In their family, Dee represents educational, fashionable, self-confident person, but Maggie is a diffident, low-pitched, awkward girl. Maggie values the family quilts for their sentiment and usefulness. She learned how to quilt from her grandmother and aunt who made the quilts. Her mother has been saving the quilts for Maggie to use after she is married.The quilts are meant to be used and appreciated every day. Maggie hints that she sees the quilts as a reminder of her grandmother and aunt when she says, â€Å"I can’t remember them without the quilts†. The conflicts of brothers and sisters relationships are the major points in both of the stories. In the â€Å"Sonny’s Blues†, Sonny always against his older brother, he gives up from the school, he takes drugs like other black youth around the neighborhood. When he decides to be a musician, his brother thinks he will be the same as their father who is a drunken corrupt man died when Sonny was fifteen years old.There is a big gap between two brothers. Sonny leaves their house, drops out of school, and joins the navy. They both get back from the war and live in New York for a while. They would see each other intermittently, and whenever they meet they would fight. Because of these fights, they do not talk to each other for a very long time. After the narrator talks about Gracie and her polio affliction, the narrator decided to write to Sonny. It seems that the narrator could better understand his brother now. In the â€Å"Everyday use†, Maggie and Dee have unique personalities. Dee values the family quilts.She thinks the quilts as priceless objects to own and display. Dee believes that she can appreciate the value of the quilts more than Maggie. Maggie is nervous about her sister’s visit. In fact, Dee's arrival makes Maggie so uncomfortable that she tries to flee to the safety of the house. When Maggie is unable to confront Dee about the quilts, she gives them to Dee because she used to never winning anything, or ha ving anything reserved for her sister. In both stories, the older siblings burden responsibility to the youngers. Sonny’s brother thinks he has responsibility because of the promise to her mother.He tries to talk to Sonny about the life style and career choices. He asks Sonny what he wants to do, and Sonny replies that he wants to be a jazz musician and play the piano. The narrator does not understand this dream and doesn’t think it is good enough for Sonny. They also try to figure out his living arrangement for the remainder of his high school career. The subject leads to an argument. Sonny calls his brother ignorant because the narrator doesn’t know who Charlie Parker is. Sonny argues that he does not want to finish high school or live at Isabel’s parents' house.However, they find a compromise. Isabel’s parents have a piano, which Sonny can play whenever he wants, provided he goes to school. Sonny agrees with the idea. He stays at Isabel’s house and goes to school sometimes. When he gets home, he constantly plays the piano. He goes to Greenwich Village, and hanging with his jazz friends who are most likely doing drugs. Once Isabel’s parents find this out, Sonny leaves their house, drops out of school, and joins the navy. The narrator objects to his brother to be a jazz musician because he loves his brother.He doesn’t want Sonny waste time to an unstable job and stay with druggies. Even though he misunderstands Sonny’s choice, he performs the responsibility by his thought exactly. Dee is a progressive model for her younger sister. She wants to increase the life quality of the family. â€Å"She washed us in a river of make-believe, burned us with a lot of knowledge we didn’t necessarily need to know. Pressed us to her with the serious way she read, to shove us away at just the moment, like dimwits, we seemed about to understand. †(page279) Dee tries to make the family better.She wants her mother and sister to have more education. She knows her younger sister’s personality. She tries to stimulate her sister, and led Maggie escape from the village to the city, but Maggie wants to stay. Dee is done the best she can in her knowledge. In contrast, the solutions of their conflicts are different. Sonny and his brother get closer at the end of the story. By playing jazz, Sonny is able to ease or relieve his suffering from the childhood. They go to the jazz club in Greenwich Village. He hears Sonny play the piano. It makes him understand that Sonny has the soul of the music.The narrator realizes how revered Sonny is there. The narrator sends a cup of scotch and milk up to the piano for Sonny, and they share a brief connecting moment. His brother finally understands that Sonny is able to turn his suffering into something worthwhile by playing the piano. Dee and Maggie are not lucky like the two brothers. Dee still keeps her own style and Maggie too. There is no sol ution for the conflicts of their sibling relationships. Maggie is content with her simple life, while Dee wants to have fine things. Maggie is nervous and intimidated by Dee, who is bold and selfish.Maggie values the emotion of the family quilts, while Dee wants to display them as a symbol of her heritage. The case is solved by their mother, but the contradictions between two sisters are still there. In the two stories, the conflicts of siblings are the most attractive events. The narrator and Sonny don’t have too much conversation because they have really different ages. When the narrator has a job, Sonny is still a kid. Sonny is not old enough to understand the things which his brother worries about. Since Sonny grows up, he knows what kind of job he wants.Unfortunately, his brother still thinks Sonny just wants to play but not to work. Finally, they solve the problems by the communication and understanding. The two sisters’ conflicts come from their opposite charact er. Dee looks forward to a rich life and gains attention from other people. She doesn’t want to stay at an old house without a real window. Maggie is afraid to leave her mother and where she used to live. She decides to be a house girl. In conclusion, the problems from siblings are because of the less understanding to each other. If they build up more connections and trust each other, those problems are easily to get rid of.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Neritic Zone Definition, Animal Life, and Characteristics

The neritic zone is the top ocean layer closest to the coastline and above the continental shelf. This zone extends from the intertidal zone (zone between high and low tide) to the edge of the continental shelf of the ocean floor, where the shelf drops off forming the continental slope. The neritic zone is shallow, reaching depths of about 200 meters (660 feet). It is a subsection of the pelagic zone and includes the oceans epipelagic zone, which lies within the photic or light zone. Key Takeaways: Neritic Zone The neritic zone is the region of shallow water (200 meters depth) above the continental shelf where light penetrates to the sea floor.Due to the abundant supply of sunlight and nutrients in this zone, it is the most productive ocean zone supporting the vast majority of marine life.Regions within the neritic zone include the infralittoral zone, circalittoral zone, and subtidal zone.Animal, protist, and plant life in the neritic zone include fish, crustaceans, mollusks, marine mammals, algae, kelp, and seagrass. Neritic Zone Definition From a marine biology perspective, the neritic zone, also referred to as the coastal ocean, is located in the photic or sunlight zone. The availability of sunlight in this region makes photosynthesis, which forms the basis of ocean ecosystems, possible. The neritic zone can be divided into biological zones based on the amount of light required to support life. This image shows the ocean zones. Â  Encyclopaedia Britannica/UIG/Getty Images Plus Infralittoral Zone This region of shallow water in the neritic zone is closest to shore and below the low-water mark. There is ample light to allow for plant growth. In temperate environments, this region is typically dominated by large algae such as kelp. Circalittoral Zone This region of the neritic zone is deeper than the infralittoral zone. Many immobile organisms populate this zone, including sponges and bryozoans (aquatic animals living in colonies). Subtidal Zone Also called the sublittoral zone, this region of the neritic zone extends from the ocean floor near the shore to the edge of the continental shelf. The subtidal zone remains submerged and is home to algae, seagrasses, corals, crustaceans, and annelid worms. From a physical oceanography perspective, the neritic zone experiences large-scale current movement that circulates nutrients in the region. Its boundaries extend from the intertidal zone to the continental shelf. The sublittoral zone is divided into inner and outer sublittoral zones. The inner sublittoral zone supports plant life that is attached to the seafloor, while the outer zone lacks attached plant life. Physical Characteristics and Productivity Coral reef scenery with Red Sea bannerfish, golden butterflyfish, orange face or hooded butterflyfish, and lyretail anthias or goldies. Georgette Douwma / Photographers Choice / Getty Images Plus The neritic zone is the most productive ocean region, as it supports an abundance of living organisms. It has been estimated that 90% of the worlds fish and shellfish harvest comes from the neritic zone. The stable environment of this zone provides light, oxygen, nutrients contributed by runoff from nearby land and up-welling from the continental shelf, as well as suitable salinity and temperature to support a wide range of marine life. Abundant in these waters are photosynthetic protists called phytoplankton that support marine ecosystems by forming the basis of the food web. Phytoplankton are unicellular algae which use light from the sun to generate their own food and are themselves food for filter-feeders and zooplankton. Marine animals such as fish feed on zooplankton and fish in turn become food for other fish, marine mammals, birds, and humans. Marine bacteria also play an important role in the flow of trophic energy by decomposing organisms and recycling nutrients in the marine environment. Animal Life This bronze whaler shark is swimming through a giant ball of sardines waiting to feed on them. wildestanimal / Moment / Getty Images Animal life is truly abundant in the neritic zone. In tropical regions, coral reef ecosystems consisting of large colonies of corals are found. Coral reefs provide a home and protection for a multitude of marine animal species including fish, crustaceans, mollusks, worms, sponges, and invertebrate chordates. In temperate regions, kelp forest ecosystems support animals including anemones, star fish, sardines, sharks, and marine mammals such as seals, killer whales, sea lions, and sea otters. Plant Life Dugong and Cleaner Fish on Seagrass. David Peart / arabianEye / Getty Images Seagrass is a type of seaweed found in neritic marine environments. These angiosperms, or flowering plants, form grass bed underwater ecosystems that provide homes for fish, algae, nematodes, and other forms of marine life. Other marine animals such as turtles, manatees, dugong, sea urchin, and crabs feed off of these plants. Seagrass helps to stabilize the environment by preventing sediment erosion, producing oxygen, storing carbon, and removing pollutants. While seagrass seaweed is a true plant, other seaweed types such as kelp are not plants but algae. Sources Day, Trevor. Ecosystems Oceans. Routledge, 2014.Garrison, Tom. Oceanography: an Invitation to Marine Science. Cengage Learning, 2015.Jones, M. B., et al. Migrations and Dispersal of Marine Organisms: Proceedings of the 37th European Marine Biology Symposium Held in Reykjavik, Iceland, 5-9 August 2002. Springer Science Business Media, 2013.Karleskint, George, et al. Introduction to Marine Biology. 3rd ed., Cengage Learning, 2009.

Friday, December 27, 2019

How to Make Real Snow at Home

If you want to see or play in snow, but Mother Nature wont cooperate, you can take matters into your own hands and make snow yourself. This is the homemade version of real water ice snow, just like the snow that falls from the sky. What You Need You need the same things found in nature: water and cold temperature. You turn the water into snow by dispersing it into particles small enough to freeze in the cold air. WaterPressure nozzle There is a handy snowmaking weather tool that will tell you whether you have the proper conditions for making snow. In some climates, the only way youll be able to make snow is if you chill a room indoors (or you can make fake snow), but much of the world can make real snow at least a few days out of the year. Pressure Nozzle You have several options: Pressure washer (own or rent, use a fine mist nozzle or use a nozzle specially designed for producing snow)Snow cannon (not affordable to buy, but can be rented)Garden hose with a snow attachment (makes less snow per hour than the pressure washer or snow cannon, but still fun) Note: Simply using a mister attached to a garden hose isnt likely to work unless the temperature is very cold. The mist particles may not be small enough or far enough apart to turn water into ice. Fine Mist All you need to do is spray a fine mist of water into the air so it cools down enough to freeze into water ice or snow. Theres a technique to this. Spray at Angle   Youll get much better results if you point your water spray upward at a 45-degree angle rather than straight up. The amount of air you get mixed in with the water makes a difference, so you want to maximize this. Water Cold as Possible You also want the water to be as cold as possible, so water from a cold stream will work better than, say, heated water from your home. Impurities Are Good The water from a stream or river also has the advantage of containing impurities which can act as nucleation sites to provide a surface on which snow crystals can grow. Add a Nucleating Agent Its also possible to add what is called a nucleating agent to your water which will accomplish the same purpose, essentially allowing you to produce snow at slightly warmer temperatures. The nucleating agent typically is a non-toxic polymer. Snow machines for ski resorts can use this effect to make snow even if the temperature is above freezing. If your water supply naturally contains a bit of sand, this can help you make snow at slightly warmer temperatures than if you were using pure water. You need only a few hours of cold to make a lot of snow. The snow will last longer if the temperature stays cold, but it will take a while to melt even if it warms up. Use Boiling Water If the temperature outdoors is extremely cold, its actually easier to make snow using boiling hot water than cold water. This technique works reliably only if the temperature is at least 25 degrees below zero Fahrenheit (below -32  °C). To do this, throw a pan of freshly boiled water into the air. Easy and Spectacular It seems counter-intuitive that boiling water would readily turn to snow. How does it work? Boiling water has a high vapor pressure. The water is very close to making the transition between a liquid and a gas. Throwing the boiling water into the air offers the molecules a lot of surface area exposed to freezing temperatures. The transition is easy and spectacular. Protect Hands and Face While its likely anyone performing this process would be bundled up against the extreme cold, take care to protect your hands and face from the boiling water. Sloshing a pan of boiling water onto skin by accident can cause a burn. The cold weather numbs skin, so theres an increased risk of getting a burn and not noticing it right away. Similarly, at such a cold temperature, there is a significant risk of frostbite to exposed skin.